Wednesday, December 3, 2008

Cosmos Physical Sciences

Mosquito in Thailand

In my country, Thailand, have a lot of mosquitoes, which are insects in the family Culicidae. They have a pair of scaled wings, a pair of halters, a slender body, and long legs. The females of most mosquito species suck blood from other animals, which has made them the most deadly disease vector known, killing millions of people over thousands of years and continuing to kill millions per year by the spread of infectious diseases. Most mosquitoes are most active around sunrise and sunset, which is why you see a peak in activity around these times, but some mosquitoes are active all times of the day and night. There are several species active in Thailand. Some species seek shelter during the heat of the day.

Most mosquitoes travel along the ground and are fairly energy conserving. People are usually aware of seeing only mosquitoes near eye level or on their arms, but most mosquito bites are on exposed lower extremities. Mosquitoes eat flower nectar and some other things. Only female mosquitoes bite humans, as they need the protein to make their eggs.

The mosquito goes through four separate and distinct stages of its life cycle and they are as follows: Egg, Larva, pupa, and adult. Each of these stages can be easily recognized by their special appearance. There are four common groups of mosquitoes living in the Bay Area. They are Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, and Culiseta.

Egg : Eggs are laid one at a time and they float on the surface of the water. In the case of Culex and Culiseta species, the eggs are stuck together in rafts of a hundred or more eggs. Anopheles and Aedes species do not make egg rafts but lay their eggs separately. Culex, Culiseta, and Anopheles lay their eggs on water while Aedes lay their eggs on damp soil that will be flooded by water. Most eggs hatch into larvae within 48 hours.

Larva : The larva (larvae - plural) live in the water and come to the surface to breathe. They shed their skin four times growing larger after each molting. Most larvae have siphon tubes for breathing and hang from the water surface. Anopheles larvae do not have a siphon and they lay parallel to the water surface. The larva feed on micro-organisms and organic matter in the water. On the fourth molt the larva changes into a pupa.

Pupa: The pupal stage is a resting, non-feeding stage. This is the time the mosquito turns into an adult. It takes about two days before the adult is fully developed. When development is complete, the pupal skin splits and the mosquito emerges as an adult.

Adult: The newly emerged adult rests on the surface of the water for a short time to allow itself to dry and all its parts to harden. Also, the wings have to spread out and dry properly before it can fly.

The egg, larvae and pupae stages depend on temperature and species characteristics as to how long it takes for development. For instance, Culex tarsalis might go through its life cycle in 14 days at 70 F and take only 10 days at 80 F. Also, some species have naturally adapted to go through their entire life cycle in as little as four days or as long as one month..

Most species are nocturnal or crepuscular (dawn or dusk) feeders. During the heat of the day most mosquitoes rest in a cool place and wait for the evenings. They may still bite if disturbed. Mosquitoes are adept at infiltration and have been known to find their way into residences via deactivated air conditioning units.

Mosquito bites are a nuisance anywhere. Anyone who lives in the tropics, however, should become familiar with mosquito borne diseases that so far have tended to be located in the tropics.

Thailand is not a particularly mosquito infested country, and tends to be pretty average for a tropical country. Mosquito borne illnesses exist here, but are not a common infliction upon expats, especially in urban areas. Decades ago, things were different, and government eradication efforts are mainly to credit for this turnaround. Nonetheless, there are still occasional reports of an expat or traveler getting a mosquito borne illness, especially near the borders with Cambodia and Burma.

My Mapping

Black Hole

Humans lived their lives, many unaware of a powerful force in the universe, strong enough to swallow the earth and even the sun. Often originating from a dying star, this power, called a “black hole” may one day destroy mankind.

An object travelling fast enough, may escape from the pull of the galaxies, but even at the speed of light, nothing can escape from the pull of the black hole. Anything near a black hole is destroyed. The black hole’s size is often much smaller than a star, but weighs like a massive star and gravity makes it strong enough to destroy objects many times larger.

A team of researchers from Australia spotted the creation of black holes, starting from gamma rays emitted by a dying star, which mass ultimately collapsed inwards until the entire star is squeezed into a microscopic point. Every thousand years, a new black hole is created. The black hole never dies and it is estimated to have about ten million black holes in the universe. However, their actual locations are not known. They are detected from the damage and debris in its trail.

The only way to track a black hole is through light, its gravitational pull is so powerful that it can even distort light. As such, when it passes a star, the star’s light is distorted. Some astronomer calls is “gravitational micro lensing”. Through these observations, they have discovered a massive black hole located in the middle of our galaxy. This finding is astonishing, because there are possibilities that the entire solar system can be wiped out.
My mapping

Thursday, November 27, 2008

Golden Gate Bridge

Golden Gate Bridge

The Golden Gate Bridge is the symbolic of San Francisco city. Everybody who came here had to go to look at this bridge. If you did not to there it seems like you never came to San Francisco.

History of Golden Gate Bridge

Before the bridge

Ocean tides flow through the Golden Gate four times a day -- twice coming in and twice going out. The quantity of salt water in motion between high and low tides averages 390 billion gallons.

Water depth at the Golden Gate is more than 300 feet, but San Francisco Bay waters are, on average, just 14 feet deep.

San Francisco Bay is a drowned valley. At the end of the most recent Ice Age, 10,000 years ago, melting ice caused rising ocean levels. Water crept steadily through the Golden Gate and flooded the land beyond.

In October 1933, Civilian Conservation Corps workers arrived at Muir Woods National Monument, a protected old-growth redwood forest on the Marin headlands. They built revetments, bridges, buildings, benches, and an amphitheater -- anticipating a surge of new visitors to the majestic forest after the bridge opened.

During construction

In August 1933, a Portland-bound ship, the Sidney M. Hauptman, veered off course in a dense fog and crashed into a construction trestle, setting back the project by about a month.

Worker Albert "Frenchy" Gales was atop the unfinished south tower at the time of a June 1935 earthquake. He remembered, "the tower swayed 16 feet each way. There were 12 or 13 guys on top with no way to get down... The whole thing would sway toward the ocean, guys would say, 'here we go!' Then it would sway back toward the bay."

Days after a tragic accident that killed ten workers, searchers recovered the giant safety net that had also fallen from the bridge. Tides had carried it a mile out into the Pacific Ocean, and 500 feet beneath the surface. They found tangled in it the body of one of the victims, a carpenter named Arthur Anderson.

After Construction

The bridge's original, two-tone fog horns functioned for almost half a century. In 1985, bridge officials replaced them with new air horns that only sound single tones.
The two main cables of the bridge weigh 11,000 tons apiece, and each main cable contains 25,572 separate wires.

The initial car toll in 1937 was 50 cents (a whopping $6.25 in 2002 dollars). By 2004, the car toll had risen to $5.00, or $4.00 with an electronic transponder -- but tolls are only collected from vehicles heading south into San Francisco.

The month of December has historically brought the most dangerous winds. Officials have closed the bridge only three times due to wind, in the Decembers of 1951 (69 mph winds), 1982 (70 mph winds), and 1983 (75 mph winds). None of the gusts caused structural damage.

The Golden Gate Bridge, completed after more than four years of construction at a cost of $35 million, is a visitor attraction recognized around the world. The GGB opened to vehicular traffic on May 28, 1937 at twelve o'clock noon, ahead of schedule and under budget, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt pressed a telegraph key in the White House announcing the event.
My Mapping

Social Sciences Essay

Social Sciences Essay

The social of the United States have many things that I couldn’t have understood. I could not understand why in the United States have a lot of homeless. Over here that people can survive; even though; they do not have any money. In the United States have many foundation to help these kinds of people. For example they provide food, house, hospital, and so on.

Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing, because they cannot afford, or are otherwise unable to maintain, regular, safe, and adequate shelter. The term "homelessness" may also include people whose primary nighttime residence is in a homeless shelter, in an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized, or in a public or private place not designed for use as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings. A small number of people choose to be homeless nomads, such as some Romani people (Gypsies) and members of some subcultures. An estimated 100 million people worldwide are homeless.

The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) defines a "chronically homeless" person as "an unaccompanied homeless individual with a disabling condition who has either been continuously homeless for a year or more, or has had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years."

In my country, Thailand, do not have a lot of homeless; moreover; do not have foundation to help the homeless. One day I saw homeless fall down on the floor, and people around there just looked at him and then I asked him “Are you okay” he did not say anything then one guy walked in and took him to sit and call 911. That was so surprise to me why people in the united stated does not want to help each other. After I saw that one of my friends had told me, if you saw something happened here or somebody heart, you could not help any people one thing you can do is call 911; otherwise; you will be a witness. In my country, Thai people help each other that is my country’s social.


Friday, November 14, 2008

Social Classes

After I saw Video about Social classes I think every country and every culture have many classes to classify how people are they?

In fact, social classifications are universal. Humans have invented numerous ways to classify people—by wealth, power, or prestige; by ability, education, or occupation; even by where they live. The term "social class" originally referred to groups of people holding similar roles in the economic processes of production and exchange, such as landowner or tenant, employer or employee. Such positions correspond to different levels of status, prestige, and access to political power, but social class eventually took on a more generic meaning and came to refer to all aspects of a person's rank in the social hierarchy they

For instance, this video shown how difference between two social classes. The lower class which often referred to as "working class" or blue-collar workers and sometime they need to work more than one job for living is generally associated with people with low levels of education, semiskilled occupations, low income and live in the same lower classes neighborhood. They kids study at public school after school or on weekend they go to play at playground that near their house and their friend are same social classes so they didn’t have chance to meet people from other classes.

On the other side, upper middle-class people which often seen as "white-collar" workers generally have more education, usually having graduated from high school or college, hold technical or mid-level manager positions, and earn average to above average incomes. Upper-class people tend to have high education, the highest salaries, and the most prestigious occupational positions. They children study in private school and their friend also same social class. Activity for middle class they go to gem to swimming, to ride a horse and go to play soccer at court.

In brief, so many people in our social life want to skip to next classes but that it to hard too changes to other class because they want to live big house ,they want their child to study at private school and to get a chance to meet people from other social classes.

Thursday, November 13, 2008

Humanities Essay

Abraham Lincoln

Because I study at Lincoln University I want to know about Abraham Lincoln history why President of Lincoln University chooses his name to be a name of University.

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, his father is Thomas Lincoln and his mother is Nancy Hanks, two uneducated farmers, in a one-room log cabin on the 348-acre (1.4 km2) Sinking Spring Farm, in southeast Hardin Country, making him the first president born outside the original 13th Colonies. Lincoln's ancestor Samuel Lincoln had arrived in Hingham, Massachusetts in the 17th century, but his descendants had gradually moved west, from Pennsylvania to Virginia and then westward to the frontier.

For some time, Thomas Lincoln, Abraham's father, was a respected and relatively affluent citizen of the Kentucky, which I went there before I move to San Francisco. He had purchased the Sinking Spring Farm in December 1808 for $200 cash and assumption of a debt. The family belonged to a Hardshell Baptist church, although Abraham himself never joined their church, or any other church for that matter.

When Lincoln was nine, his mother, then 34 years old, died of milk sickness. Soon afterwards, his father remarried to Sarah Bush Johnston. Lincoln was affectionate toward his stepmother, whom he would call "Mother" for the rest of his life, but he was distant from his father.
In 1830, after more economic and land-title difficulties in Indiana, the family settled on public land in Macon Country, Illinois. The following winter was desolate and especially brutal, and the family considered moving back to Indiana. The following year, when his father relocated the family to a new homestead in Coles country, Illinois, 22-year-old Lincoln struck out on his own, canoeing down the Sangamon River to the village of New Salem in Sangamon country. Later that year, hired by New Salem businessman Denton Offutt and accompanied by friends, he took goods from New Salem to New Orleans via flatboat on the Sangamon, Illinois and Mississippi rivers.

Lincoln's formal education consisted of about 18 months of schooling, but he was largely self-educated and an avid reader. He was also a talented local wrestler and skilled with an axe. Lincoln avoided hunting and fishing because he did not like killing animals, even for food. At 6 foot 4 inches (1.93 m), he was unusually tall, as well as strong.

Lincoln was chosen as the Republican candidate for the 1860 election for several reasons. His expressed views on slavery were seen as more moderate than those of rivals William H. Seward and Salmon P. Chase. His "Western" origins also appealed to the newer states: other contenders, especially those with more governmental experience, had acquired enemies within the party and were weak in the critical western states, while Lincoln was perceived as a moderate who could win the West. Most Republicans agreed with Lincoln that the North was the aggrieved party as the Slave Power tightened its grasp on the national government. Throughout the 1850s he denied that there would ever be a civil war, and his supporters repeatedly rejected claims that his election would incite secession. On May 9-10, 1860, the Illinois Republican State Convention was held in Decatur. At this convention, Lincoln received his first endorsement to run for the presidency.

Throughout the general election, Lincoln did not campaign or give speeches. This was handled by the state and county Republican organizations, which used the latest techniques to sustain party enthusiasm and thus obtain high turnout. There was little effort to convert non-Republicans, and there was virtually no campaigning in the South except for a few border cities such as St. Louis, Missouri, and Wheeling, Virginia; indeed, the party did not even run a slate in most of the South. In the North, there were thousands of Republican speakers, tons of campaign posters and leaflets, and thousands of newspaper editorials. These focused first on the party platform, and second on Lincoln's life story, making the most of his boyhood poverty, his pioneer background, his native genius, and his rise from obscurity. His nicknames, "Honest Abe" and "the Rail-Splitter," were exploited to the full. The goal was to emphasize the superior power of "free labor," whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts. On November 6, 1860, Lincoln was elected as the 16th President of the United States.

After, I read this article form internet, he was a great man and I believe that American people had to know them when they studied at high school. I figure out about Lincoln who is amazing guy.

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci

Leonardo's earliest known drawing, the Arno Valley, (1473) – Uffizi

Leonardo was born on April 15, 1452, at the third hour of the night, in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the lower valley of the Arno River in the territory of Florence. He was the illegitimate son of Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine notary, and Caterina, a peasant whose may has been a slave from the Middle East Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense, "da Vinci" simply mean "of Vinci": his full birth name was "Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci", meaning "Leonardo, son of from Vinci".
Little is known about Leonardo's early life. He spent his first five year in the hamlet of Anchiano, and then lived in the household of his father, grandparents and uncle, Francesco, in a small town of Vinci city. His father had married sixteen year old girl named Albiera, who loved Leonardo but died young. In later life, Leonardo only record two childhood incident. At the first, which he regarded as an omen, was when a kite dropped from the sky and hovered over his cradle, its tail feathers brushing his face. At the second occurred while exploring in the mountains. He discovered a cave and was both terrified that some great monster might lurk there, and driven by curiosity to find out what was inside.
Leonard's early life has been the subject of historical conjecture. Vasari, the 16th century biographer of Renaissance painters tells of how a local peasant requested that Ser Piero ask his talented son to paint a picture on a round plaque. Leonardo responded with a painting of snakes spitting fire which was so terrifying that Ser Piero sold it to a Florentine art dealer, who sold it to the Duke of Milan. Meanwhile, having made a profit, Ser Piero bought a plaque decorated with a heart pierced by an arrow, which he gave to the peasant.

Leonardo right to left

Leonardo wrote in Italian using a special kind of shorthand that he invented himself. People who study his notebooks have long been puzzled by something else, however. He usually used "mirror writing", starting at the right side of the page and moving to the left. Only when he was writing something intended for other people did he write in the normal direction.

Here is a sample of Leonardo's writing as it appears in his drawings.

This is how it would look reversed by a mirror.
People who were contemporaries of Leonardo left records that they saw him write and paint left handed. He also made sketches showing his own left hand at work. Being a lefty was highly unusual in Leonardo's time. Because people were superstitious, children who naturally started using their left hands to write and draw were forced to use their right hands.
No one knows the true reason Leonardo used mirror writing, though several possibilities have been suggested: